en
ru
  • ModeRTL
  • ModePEB
  • ModeXR
  • ModeStEB
  • ModeStXR
  • ModeDW
  • ModeGR
  • ModeSAL
  • RT-Builder
  • ModeCEB
  • Abstracts of journals
  • Abstracts of conference's papers
  • Abstracts of books
  • Practical tasks
  • Training courses
  • The Panel on Gamma and Electron irradiation known as the Panel
  • Radiation Process Simulation and Modeling User Group
  • International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Google search
  • Abstracts of conference's papers

    2000 y.

    1. F. ALOUANI BIBI, V. LAZURIK, Yu. ROGOV and T. TABATA.
      Approximation of Charge-Deposition Density in Thin Slabs Irradiated by Electrons.
      Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 59, pp. 239-248, 2000.

      Abstract: Charge-deposition distributions in thin slabs irradiated by plan-parallel electron beams have been studied. The slabs considered are made of elements with atomic numbers from 4 to 79. The slab thicknesses are from 0.5 to 50 mg/cm2, and the electron beam energies are from 1 to 10 MeV. Using a new Monte Carlo method (called trajectory translation method), data on the charge- deposition density have been obtained. Theoretical analysis of these data has been performed. Based on this analysis, a semiempirical model that describes charge-deposition distributions in thin slabs has been developed. The results obtained by the semiempirical model have been compared with those obtained by the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code to show moderate agreement.

    2. Valentina LAZURIK, Tatsuo TABATA and Valentin LAZURIK.
      EMID: Electron Material Interaction Database.
      Bulletin IRPS Vol. 14, Nos. 2/3, p. 6, 2000.

      Abstract: Using empirical formulas and algorithms developed by Tabata et al., this database carries out calculations on the client-side computer, and provides the user with plots and numerical data of quantities related to the passage of fast electrons through thick layers of matter. Plane-parallel electron beams of energies mainly in the region from 0.1 to 20 MeV incident on various materials are considered. The quantities treated are energy deposition, primary-charge deposition, transmission and backscattering coefficients and ranges by different definitions. EMID also allows the user to compare the curves of the quantities, for example, as a function of absorber depth, between different incident electron energies or different absorber materials. Thus the database would be useful in getting not only an insight into the general trends of the interactions of electrons with matter but also quick evaluation of the effects of electron irradiation in such applications as materials modification, food preservation and sterilization of medical products. This database has been developed by using the modern Web technology, has friendly interface and is accessible also by users not possessing special knowledge in the areas of computer technologies and the passage of radiation through matter.

    3. V.T. LAZURIK, V.V. CHORNIY, Yu.V. ROGOV, A.V. CHORNIY, V.P MOSKVIN.
      Modeling of Electron Beam Tracking and X-Ray Generation for the Equipment Optimization.
      Visnyk Kharkivskogo Universitetu, Physical series
      "Nuclei, Particles, Fields ", Vol. 496, No. 4, pp. 49-54, 2000. (in English).

      Abstract: The special Monte Carlo program package has been developed for modeling the physics of high power electron and photon beams and their practical applications. The advanced and user-friendly interface of the package enables to solve problems of the equipment optimization and to study characteristics of it.

    4. V. LAZURIK, A. LISITSKIY, S. PISMENESKIY, Yu. ROGOV.
      Effects of Inhomogeneity in Plane Shielding Construction.
      IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 47, No. 6, pp. 2132-2134, 2000.

      Abstract: A previously proposed method was applied to a heterogeneity shield calculation and showed some remarkable results. In the present work, more extensive study of the dose distributions near a shield heterogeneity were performed. As a result of this investigate, a calculation-experimental method was developed for dose field calculations with complex geometry and a typical scale much greater than a mean free path of gamma radiation. Experimental data can be readily used to verify other codes.

    5. G.F. POPOV, V.T. LAZURIK, V.M. LAZURIK, Yu.V. ROGOV and S.A. KORENEV.
      Expert System for the Industrial Electron Accelerator Control.
      Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Personal Computer and Particle Accelerator Controls, DESY Hamburg, Germany, ID: 53, 2000.

      Abstract: An expert system has been developed for industrial radiation technological line control, based on an electron accelerator with scanning electron beam and a conveyor. The aim of this expert system is to provide a choice and optimization of radiation treatment parameters in different radiation technological processes. It may be successfully used by operators of radiation technological line as well as by scientific researchers. The description of expert system on the basis of new software "SIRTEL" is considered in the report.

    6. ICAP 2000. 6th International Computational Accelerator Physics Conference September 11 - 14, 2000, TU Darmstadt, Germany. Program and Abstracts

    7. Yu. ROGOV, V. LAZURIK, V. CHORNIY, A. CHORNIY, V. MOSKVIN.
      Modeling of Equipment to Produce High Intensity X-Rays. -p. 121.
    8. Abstract: The special Monte Carlo program package X-GENERATOR has been developed for Win32, i.e, for the operating systems of Windows 95, 98 and Windows NT 4.0, 4.5. The package provides maximum convenience to the user and efficiency for modeling the physics of high power electron and photon beams and their practical applications. The advanced and user-friendly interface of the package enables the study of equipment characteristics by the user who has no background in the simulation technique of radiation transport. The results of comparison between modeling and measurements using TLD dosimeters carried out on the GAMBLE-II high power accelerator in Naval Research Laboratories, U.S.A are discussed.

    2001 y.

    1. F. ALOUANI BIBI, V. LAZURIK, Yu. ROGOV and T. TABATA.
      Charge-Deposition in Two-layer Systems Irradiated by Electrons.
      Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 60, pp. 151-156, 2001.

      Abstract: On the basis of the data obtained by computer simulation and theoretical analysis of charge-deposition density in single slabs located in vacuum (Alouani-Bibi et al., 1999), a semiempirical model that describes the charge- deposition distributions in two-layer systems irradiated by fast electron beams has been developed. The slabs considered are made of materials with atomic numbers from 4 to 79 and thicknesses from 0.5 to 50 mg/cm2. Comparisons have been made of the results obtained by the present model and those obtained by the PENELOPE code. Results of charge-deposition distributions for different material combinations of the layers are also presented.

    2. Valentina LAZURIK, Tatsuo TABATA, Valentin LAZURIK.
      A database for electron-material interactions.
      Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 60, pp. 161-162, 2001.

      Abstract: A Web database named electron-material interaction database (EMID) has been developed. It provides the user with plots and numerical data of quantities related to the passage of fast electrons through thick layers of matter.

    2002 y.

    1. Tatsuo TABATA, Vadim MOSKVIN, Pedro ANDREO, Valentin LAZURIK, Yuri ROGOV.
      Extrapolated Ranges of Electrons Determined from Transmission and Projected-Range Straggling Curves.
      Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 64, pp. 161-167, 2002.

      Abstract: Extrapolated ranges of electrons Rex,t and Rex,p have been determined from transmission and projected-range straggling curves, respectively. Data on the two kinds of curve have been obtained by Monte Carlo calculations for 0.1-50 MeV electrons incident on elemental absorbers of atomic numbers between 4 and 92. The two sets of extrapolated ranges, as well as another set, Rex,q, determined from charge-deposition curves [Tabata et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 119 (4), 463-470 (1996)], have been found practically the same. Appreciable differences of Rex,t from Rex,p and Rex,q have been observed only for electrons of energies below 2 MeV incident on absorbers of the highest atomic numbers. The cause of these differences has been traced to the backscattering of electrons from the incident surface, phenomenon affecting only Rex,t among the extrapolated ranges determined by the three methods. The fact that the extrapolated range is in most cases independent of the method of determination establishes the usefulness of this quantity. An analytic expression fitted to the Monte Carlo results of Rex,t is given.

    2. V.N. BORISKO, A.F. TSELUYKO, V.T. LAZURIK, D.V. ZINOV'EV, S.V. BORISKO.
      Modeling of Intensive X-ray Generator on the Basis of Low Pressure Plasma Diode.
      Visnyk Kharkivskogo Universitetu, Physical series
      "Nuclei, Particles, Fields ", Vol. 569, No. 3, pp. 55-58, 2002. (in English).

      Abstract: The flash x-ray generator on the basis of a high-current plasma diode of low pressure with an extended interelectrode gap is offered. Most effective operation mode of a plasma diode for x-ray generators and the software ModeXR (Modeling of X-ray Tube) for experimental and theoretical investigations of generators is described. Simulation results of x-ray generator with a plasma diode were analyzed and comparison with generators on the basis of vacuum diodes is discussed.

    3. ICAP 2002. Seventh International Computational Accelerator Physics Conference. October 15-18, 2002, East Lansing, MI, USA. Abstract Book.

    4. V.T. LAZURIK, V.M. LAZURIK, G.F. POPOV, Yu.V. ROGOV.
      The Software ModeRTL for Simulation of Radiation Processes in Electron Beam Technologies. -p. 72.
    5. Abstract: At present time the electron beam (EB) processing are widely used in different industrial radiation technologies. The success of application of electron beams in radiation technology depends largely on development of computer software to be used for simulation of irradiation process on radiation technological lines (RTL) incorporating an electron accelerator with a scanner of electron beam and a conveyor.

      The software ModeRTL (Modeling of Radiation-Technological Line) was developed by authors for simulation of radiation processes, that used as an irradiation source of the pulsed or continuous type of electron accelerators with electron energy in the range from 0.1 to 20 MeV. The ModeRTL is intended for: a choice of optimum layout of the radiation equipment at realization of specific radiation-technological process; an optimization of parameters of radiation treatment of objects in view of features of radiation-technological process; a validation of the chosen parameters. For searching optimum solutions, the ModeRTL calculates and represents the spatial distributions of an absorbed electron dose, charge and temperature in an irradiated object, maximum, minimum and average values of an absorbed electron dose, factor of utilization of an electron beam energy, electron ranges, and other important characteristics of electron - material interaction in graphic and tabular forms of convenient for comparative analysis.

      The software ModeRTL is a complex of physical and mathematical methods included in an uniform program shell. This software uses the Monte Carlo simulation and calculations based on analytical model of irradiation processes, gives an opportunity to compare calculated results with each other and to compare distributions of absorbed dose of electrons in different materials with the world-wide data base. It provides high verification of calculated results and decisions accepted on this base.

      The ModeRTL program is available for Windows -95/98/NT/XP/ME/ PC's, has a convenient user interface which users can use intuitively, and can be easily adapted to PC-based control system of any industrial RTL with scanning electron beams. Results of the use of the ModeRTL program for optimization of EB processing parameters in some radiation technologies will be discussed.

      PCaPAC 2002. 4th International Workshop on "Personal Computers and Particle Accelerator Controls". October 14-17, 2002, Frascaty, Italy. Abstract Book.

    6. V.T. LAZURIK, V.M. LAZURIK, G.F. POPOV, Yu.V. ROGOV.
      The Use of the Program ModeRTL in Control System of Industrial Electron Accelerator. -p. 32.
    7. Abstract: Authors have integrated the software ModeRTL (Modeling of Radiation-Technological Line) into the control system of the RTL incorporating an industrial linear electron accelerator with a scanner of electron beam and a conveyor. An operation of the control system is based on monitoring of electron beam and radiation facilities parameters, calculations of the absorbed dose distribution in an irradiated materials, and elaboration of control signals on value of deviation between calculated and calibration data for the specific radiation-technological process. The control system uses the thermoacoustic emission, generated by the pulsed electron beam in thin rods and plates, as a source of primary information about the current status of characteristics of each electron pulse of scanning electron beam.

      The main function of the software ModeRTL in control system are the following: processing of the acoustic response amplitude from radiation-acoustic dosimeter and restoration of electron intensity and a spatial profile of radiation field on the surface of irradiated materials; calculation of the absorbed dose, charge and temperature distribution in an irradiated materials; comparison of calculated absorbed dose and calibration data that are stored in data base; preparation and verification of control commands for radiation facilities. Due to fast analytical methods, the software ModeRTL execute all functions in real-time regime.

      The general architecture, the main components, and the mathematical aspects of the software ModeRTL will be discussed in the paper.

      29 th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. June 17-21, 2002, Montreux, Switzerland.

    8. V.N. BORISKO, A.F. TSELUYKO, V.T. LAZURIK, D.V. ZINOV'EV, S.V. BORISKO.
      Intensive X-ray Generator on the Basis of Low Pressure Plasma Diode. ECA Vol. 26B, P-4.029, 2002.
    9. Abstract: In the paper the pulse X-rays generator on the basis of a high-current plasma diode of low pressure with an extended interelectrode gap is offered. The mechanism of X-rays generation is given and most effective operation mode of a plasma diode is described. On the basis of computer simulation with use of original software ModeXR the considerable increase of an X-rays dose per impulse in comparison with systems on the basis of vacuum diodes with an explosive electron emission is shown.

    2003 y.

    1. V.T. LAZURIK, V.M. LAZURIK, G.F. POPOV, Yu.V. ROGOV.
      Software Tools for Optimization of Industrial EB and X-Ray Processing.
      Proceedings of the 7-th International Conference on ELECTRON BEAM TECHNOLOGIES, EBT 2003, Varna, Bulgaria, pp. 616-622, 2003.

      Abstract: Electron beam (EB) and X-ray (bremsstrahlung) processing based on electron accelerators are widely used in different industrial radiation technologies. The critical elements for all radiation-technological processes are the following: the mapping of an absorbed dose distribution, a dose uniformity ratio of electron and X-ray beams within the irradiated product; a choice of optimum layout of the radiation equipment for irradiator; an optimization of radiation treatment parameters for products in view of radiation processing features and dose limits. The use of mathematical modeling and simulation methods can effectively help optimize the irradiation processes.

      An electron accelerator, a scanner of electron beam, a conveyor line, an irradiated product and a package are the major components of the radiation-technological lines (RTL) for EB irradiator. An additional element of RTL for X-ray irradiator is an X-ray converter with cooling system. The detailed physical and geometrical models of the EB and X-ray irradiators were realized in the form of new mathematical software: the program ModeRTL for EB and the program X-ray Soft for X-ray processing.

      These programs were designed specially for simulation and optimization of industrial radiation processes, calculation of the absorbed dose, temperature and charge distribution within products irradiated by scanning electron and X-ray beams on industrial RTL that is based on the pulsed or continuous type of electron accelerators in the electron energy range from 0.1 to 20 MeV. The programs use in the unified calculation scheme of the transport of electron and gamma radiation in materials of different calculation methods, such as analytical, semi-empirical and precise - method Monte Carlo (MC). At implementation of the simulation MC methods the specially designed schemes which allow to reduce a running time for receiving of the end results in about hundreds time were applied.

      For searching optimum solution, the programs ModeRTL and X-ray Soft calculate and represent in graphic and tabular forms: the absorbed dose, temperature and charge distributions within irradiated products; the deviations of maximum and minimum values from the average value for dose profiles at center and boundary of the irradiated product; the dose uniformity ratio; optimum product thickness at double treatment of the irradiated materials from opposite sides; the conversion efficiency from electron beam to X-rays for converter with cooling system; the EB and X-ray utilization efficiency in the irradiated products; and other important characteristics for economic evaluation of EB and X-ray processing.

      Results of use of the designed programs as predictive tool for dose measurements and for optimization of radiation processing parameters at stages of planning, starting-up and adjustment works of radiation facility, and realization of some radiation technologies will be discussed.

    2. V.T. LAZURIK, V.M. LAZURIK, G.F. POPOV, Yu.V. ROGOV.
      Integration of Simulation Methods in Control System for EB Processing.
      Proceedings of the "PHYSICS AND CONTROL", PhysCon 2003 Conference,
      Saint Petersburg, Russia, pp. 1003-1008, 2003.

      Abstract: This paper will focus mainly on the integration features of mathematical simulation of electron beam (EB) processing into the control system (CS) of the radiation-technological tine (RTL) incorporating an industrial electron accelerator with a scanner of electron beam and a conveyor. The motivation for this development is the creation of the CS that allow to realize the control of the absorbed dose distribution of EB within the irradiated materials in real-time mode. Because there is no direct express measurement methods for scanning EB of the absorbed dose distribution, which is one of the most important characteristic for all radiation-technological processes.

    3. V.T. LAZURIK, V.M. LAZURIK, G.F. POPOV, Yu.V. ROGOV.
      Modeling of processes of an irradiation for industrial technologies.
      Visnyk Kharkivskogo Universitetu Vol. 605, No. 2, pp. 72-89, 2003. (in English).

      Abstract: The conception for design of the Radiation-Technological Office (RT-Office) was developed by authors. RT-Office realize computer technologies at all basic stages of works execution on the radiation-technological lines (RTL) using irradiators of electron beam (EB), X-ray and g-ray. RT Office is the common program shell which provides flexible intellectual interaction between specialized modules and databases for optimal planning of the process of an irradiating and control of its realization. RT-Office is accessible to a broad audience of users without a special knowledge in the field of transport of ionizing radiation and computer technologies. The descriptions of the specialized programs developed by authors ModeRTL, XR-Soft and g-ray-Soft which are based RT-Office modules and intended for simulation of EB, X-ray, and g-ray processing respectively are considered in the paper.

    4. Lazurik V.T., Lazurik V.M., Popov G., Rogov Yu.
      Integration of Simulation Methods in Control System for EB Processing. Proceedings of the PhysCon 2003 Conference, Saint Petersburg. Russia, 2003.-P. 1003-1008.
    5. Abstract. Authors have integrated the software ModeRTL (Modeling of Radiation-Technological Line) into the control system of the RTL incorporating an industrial linear electron accelerator with a scanner of electron beam and a conveyor. An operation of the control system is based on monitoring of electron beam and radiation facilities parameters, calculations of the absorbed dose distribution in an irradiated materials, and elaboration of control signals on value of deviation between calculated and calibration data for the specific radiationtechnological process. The control system uses the thermoacoustic emission, generated by the pulsed electron beam in thin rods and plates, as a source of primary information about the current status of characteristics of each electron pulse of scanning electron beam.

      The main function of the software ModeRTL in control system are the following: processing of the acoustic response amplitude from radiation-acoustic dosimeter and restoration of electron intensity and a spatial profile of radiation field on the surface of irradiated materials; calculation of the absorbed dose, charge and temperature distribution in an irradiated materials; comparison of calculated absorbed dose and calibration data that are stored in data base; preparation and verification of control commands for radiation facilities. Due to fast analytical methods, the software ModeRTL execute all functions in real-time regime.

      The general architecture, the main components, and the mathematical aspects of the software ModeRTL are discussed in the paper.

    6. Lazurik V.T., Lazurik V.M., Popov G., Rogov Yu.
      Software tools for optimization of industrial EB and X-ray processing.
      Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Electron Beam Technologies, EBT 2003, Varna, Bulgaria, 2003.- P. 616-622.
    7. Abstract. Electron beam (EB) and X-ray (bremsstrahlung) processing based on electron accelerators are widely used in different industrial radiation technologies. The critical elements for all radiation-technological processes are the following: the mapping of an absorbed dose distribution, a dose uniformity ratio of electron and X-ray beams within the irradiated product; a choice of optimum layout of the radiation equipment for irradiator; an optimization of radiation treatment parameters for products in view of radiation processing features and dose limits. The use of mathematical modeling and simulation methods for optimization of industrial EB and X-ray processing will be discussed in the paper.

    8. Lazurik V.T., Lazurik V.M., Popov G., Rogov Yu.
      Simulation tool for scanning X-ray beams irradiator.
      Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference (PAC-2003), Portland. OR.USA, 2003.- P.1080-1082.
    9. Abstract. X-ray produced by high-power electron accelerators are intensively used in different radiation technologies. The detailed physical and geometrical models of the X-ray irradiator were realized in the form of new mathematical software of the "X-ray Soft" for simulation of industrial radiation processes and the absorbed dose distribution (ADD) within product irradiated by scanning X-ray beams. The motivation for the development of the program is the creation of accurate and easily accessible tool for prediction of the ADD, for optimization of regimes of the irradiator, and for reducing of experimental dosimetric measurements. The scientifically-justified optimization is carried out in view of features of the used radiation facility, and specific requirements of technology to conditions of irradiation. It is reached due to the use in the unified calculation scheme of the transport of electron and gamma radiation in materials of different calculation methods, such as analytical, semi-empirical and precise Monte Carlo method. At realization of the simulation methods the special designed schemes permitting to reduced calculation time for receiving of the end results in about hundreds time were applied. The scientific substantiation of a correctness of implementation of the developed simulation models in the program on the basis of theoretical and experimental data analysis will be presented in this report.

      12th International Meeting on Radiation Processing (IMRP), September 7-12, 2003, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Abstract Book.

    10. I. KALUSKA, V.T. LAZURIK, V.M. LAZURIK, G.F. POPOV, Yu.V. ROGOV, Z. ZIMEK.
      Boundary effects in the heterogeneous materials irradiated by electron beams. -p. 158.
    11. Abstract: The simulation of the absorbed depth-dose distribution (DDD) near to boundary of two materials with different density and /or by effective atomic numbers of materials irradiated by a scanning electron beam with energy from 1 to 20 MeV was fulfilled. The simulation was conducted with utilization of the software ModeRTL (Modeling of the radiation-technological lines (RTL)), that used in the unified calculation scheme of the transport of electrons in materials of different calculation methods, such as analytical, semi-empirical and precise - method Monte Carlo.

      The anomalies in behavior of the DDD on a boundary of two materials relatively of the DDD in homogeneous materials composing a heterogeneous target were detected. In particular, in the DDD can be watched exceeding of maximum value in a comparison with homogeneous materials, appearance of a minimum near the irradiated surface. The anomalies in the DDD are essential at planning and realization of the EB processing on the RTL. Because the criteria of a choice of the irradiation parameters are determined by minimum and maximum value of the absorbed dose in the irradiated materials.

      For investigation of the mechanism of anomalies formation in the DDD the detailed simulation by Monte Carlo method of the irradiating processes of heterogeneous targets with film dosimeters was conducted. The special researches of a correctness for simulation of trajectories of electrons passing under sliding angles near to a boundary of heterogeneous materials were carried out.

      The experimental verification of the obtained theoretical predictions related with abnormal behavior of the DDD in heterogeneous materials was fulfilled on RTL with linear electron accelerator LAE 13/9, Warsaw. The heterogeneous materials were irradiated by a scanning electron beam with energy 10 MeV on the moving conveyor. The dosimetric film such as PVC (polyvinylchloride) was inserted in parallel with electron beam into homogeneous materials (Al, PE, Wood, Water).

      The good agreement of the calculated and experimental data for the DDD in the PVC dosimetric film is obtained. With help of the software ModeRTL the nature of anomalies observed in practice (appearance of a minimum, exceeding of maximum value in a homogeneous materials) in the DDD for spatially nonuniform objects is explained. The designed software tool allows to predict experimental results that can be obtained with the use of film dosimeters, to optimize modes of an irradiating of materials by scanning electron beams for the specific radiation-technological process.

    12. V.T. LAZURIK, V.M. LAZURIK, G.F. POPOV, Yu.V. ROGOV.
      The use of simulation technology for industrial X-ray processing. -p. 114.
    13. Abstract: The use of electron accelerators for generation of X-ray (bremsstrahlung) beams represents major commercial interest in the field of radiation technologies. The X-rays radiation solves a problem of processing of objects with the thickness much exceeding the electron range in these objects. The success of application of X-ray beams in radiation processing depends largely on development of computer software to be used for simulation of irradiation processes on radiation technological lines (RTL).

      The program X-ray Soft was designed specially for simulation of industrial radiation processes and calculation of the absorbed dose and temperature distribution within products irradiated by scanning X-ray beams on industrial (RTL) that is based on the pulsed or continuous type of electron accelerators in the energy range from 0.1 to 50 MeV . A source of electron beam, a scanner, the X-ray converter with cooling system, a conveyor line, an irradiated product and a package are considered in uniform self-consistent geometrical and physical models.

      The main features of this program are the following: the use in the unified calculation scheme of the transport of electron and gamma radiation in materials of different calculation methods, such as analytical, semi-empirical and precise - method Monte Carlo; an existence of friendly and intelligent interface with specially developed system of the expert control of the input and output data; a comparison and validation of calculated results of absorbed X-ray dose with experimental data and the world-wide data base.

      The program X-ray Soft was used for: calculation of the different construction variants of X-ray converter with cooling system on its conversion efficiency from electron beam to X-rays versus materials composition and thickness of converter plates and cooling agent; calculation of the optimum thickness of the converter plates; simulation of the X-ray energy spectrum; simulation of the absorbed dose distribution within irradiated products, calculation of the dose uniformity ratio, and optimum product thickness at double treatment of the irradiated materials from opposite sides; calculation of the X-ray utilization efficiency in the irradiated products and electron beam power utilization.

      The testing and verification of the results calculated by the program X-ray Soft with theoretical calculated data, with results obtained by the powerful universal packages such as ITS, EGS4 and PENELOPE, and some experimental data of other authors in published work were carried out. The comparison investigations indicated that the developed physical and mathematical models are reliable and correct and the program X-ray Soft is accurate, easily accessible for all users and can be successfully used by RTL operator as well as by scientific researches. A physical basis, mathematical aspects of the program, calculation and comparison results for optimization of X-ray processing will be discussed in this paper.

      "XVIII International Workshop on Charged Particle Accelerators", September 1-6, Alushta, the Crimea, Ukraine, 2003. Abstract Book.

    14. V.T. LAZURIK, V.M. LAZURIK, G.F. POPOV, Yu.V. ROGOV.
      RT-Office for Optimization of Industrial EB and X-Ray Processing. -pp. 204-205.
    15. Abstract: The conception for design of the Radiation-Technological Office (RT-Office) was developed by authors. RT-Office realize computer technologies at all stages of works execution on the radiation-technological lines (RTL) for EB and X-ray processing. RT Office is the common program shell which provides flexible intellectual interaction between specialized modfules and databases for optimal planning of the process of an irradiating and control of its realization.

      The wide opportunities of the RT-Office is based on developed by authors: semiempirical models for dose distribution of an ionizing radiation in spatially - non-uniform objects irradiated by scanning electron and X-ray beams; high effective programs for simulating by Monte Carlo method of the irradiating processes of spatially - non-uniform objects; databases for equipment characteristics and objects used in radiation technologies; computer methods for expertise and control of conditions for an irradiating realization. The description of the specialized programs ModeRTL and X-ray Soft which are based on the RT-Office modules and intended for simulation of EB and X-ray processing respectively is considered in the paper.

    16. I. KALUSKA, V.T. LAZURIK, V.M. LAZURIK, G.F. POPOV, Yu.V. ROGOV, Z. ZIMEK.
      Dose Distribution in the Heterogeneous Materials Irradiated by Electron Beams. -pp. 209-210.
    17. Abstract: The simulation of the absorbed depth-dose distribution (DDD) near to boundary of contact materials with different density and /or by effective atomic numbers of materials irradiated by a scanning electron beam with energy from 1 to 20 MeV was fulfilled. The simulation was conducted with utilization of the software ModeRTL (Modeling of the radiation-technological lines (RTL)), that used in the unified calculation scheme of the transport of electrons in materials of different calculation methods, such as analytical, semi-empirical and precise - method Monte Carlo.

      The experimental verification of the obtained theoretical predictions related with abnormal behavior of the DDD in heterogeneous materials was fulfilled on RTL with linear electron accelerator LAE 13/9, Warsaw. The heterogeneous materials were irradiated by a scanning electron beam with energy 10 MeV on the moving conveyor. The good agreement of the calculated and experimental data for the DDD in the CTA dosimetric film is obtained.

      PAC 2003. The 20th Particle Accelerator Conference. May 12-16, 2003, Portland, Oregon, USA. Abstract Book.

    18. G.F. POPOV, V.T. LAZURIK, V.M. LAZURIK, Yu.V. ROGOV.
      Simulation Tool for Scanning X-Ray Beams Irradiator. -p. 82.
    19. Abstract: X-ray produced by high-power electron accelerators are intensively used in different radiation technologies. The detailed physical and geometrical models of the X-ray irradiator were realized in the form of new mathematical software of the "X-ray Soft" for simulation of industrial radiation processes and the absorbed dose distribution (ADD) within product irradiated by scanning X-ray beams. The motivation for the development of the program is the creation of accurate and easily accessible tool for prediction of the ADD, for optimization of regimes of the irradiator, and for reducing of experimental dosimetric measurements. The scientifically-justified optimization is carried out in view of features of the used radiation facility, and specific requirements of technology to conditions of irradiation. It is reached due to the use in the unified calculation scheme of the transport of electron and gamma radiation in materials of different calculation methods, such as analytical, semi-empirical and precise Monte Carlo method. At realization of the simulation methods the special designed schemes permitting to reduced calculation time for receiving of the end results in about hundreds time were applied. The scientific substantiation of a correctness of implementation of the developed simulation models in the program on the basis of theoretical and experimental data analysis will be presented in this report.

    20. Kaluska I., Lazurik V.M., Popov G., Rogov Yu., Zimik Z.
      Boundary effects in the heterogeneous materials irradiated by electron beams.
      Abstract book: 12th International Meeting on Radiation Processing (IMRP), Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2003, p. 158.
    21. Abstract. The anomalies of depth-dose distribution on boundary of two materials at orientation in parallel with incident electron beam were predicted by computer simulation with use ModeRTL software. Experiments were conducted on radiation-technological line to validate computer simulation results. CTA dosimetric films in form of strips were inserted between two blocks at various combinations of materials (Al, wood, PE). Such heterogeneous targets were irradiated by scanned electron beam on moving conveyer. Validation of computer simulation predictions of an irradiation process with use of the software ModeRTL was fulfilled by comparison with results of CTA films measurements. The anomalies predicted by simulation methods on curves of depth-dose distribution near to boundary of two materials with different densities were experimentally confirmed. Influence of the boundary anomalies in depth-dose distributions on quality realization of radiation-technological process are discussed in the report from standpoint of the dose limits Dmin and Dmax location.

    2004 y.

    1. I. KALUSKA, V.T. LAZURIK, V.M. LAZURIK, G.F. POPOV, Yu.V. ROGOV, Z. ZIMEK.
      Dose Distribution in the Heterogeneous Materials Irradiated by Electron Beams.
      Problems of atomic science and technology. Series: Nuclear Physics Investigations (42), No. 1, pp. 184-186, 2004.

      Abstract: The simulation of the absorbed depth-dose distribution (DDD) near the boundary of contacting materials with a different density and/or by effective atomic numbers of materials irradiated by a scanning electron beam was fulfilled. The experimental validation of the obtained theoretical predictions related with abnormal behavior of the DDD in heterogeneous materials was fulfilled on the radiation-technological lines with Linac LAE 13/9, INCT.

    2. V.T. LAZURIK, V.M. LAZURIK, G.F. POPOV, Yu.V. ROGOV.
      RT-Office for Optimization of Industrial EB and X-Ray Processing.
      Problems of atomic science and technology. Series: Nuclear Physics Investigations (42), No. 1, pp. 186-189, 2004.

      Abstract: The conception for design of the Radiation-Technological Office (RT-Office) was developed by authors. RT-Office realize computer technologies at all basic stages of works execution on the radiation-technological lines (RTL) using irradiators of electron beam (EB), X-ray and g-ray. The description of the programs ModeRTL and XR-Soft which are intended for simulation of EB and X-ray processing is considered in the paper.

    3. I. KALUSKA, V.T. LAZURIK, V.M. LAZURIK, G.F. POPOV, Yu.V. ROGOV, Z. ZIMEK.
      Basic Laws of Boundaries Effects for the Absorbed Dose Distribution of Electrons in the Heterogeneous Materials.
      The Journal of Kharkiv National University, physical series "Nuclei, Particles, Fields", Vol. 619, No. 1, pp. 37-48, 2004. (in English).

      Abstract: The anomalies of the absorbed dose distribution of electrons near the boundary of contacting materials at orientation in parallel with incident electron beam were predicted by computer simulation with use the ModeRTL software. Dosimetric experiments were performed on radiation-technological line to validate the theoretical predictions. Heterogeneous targets were irradiated by scanning electron beam with electron energy 10 MeV on moving conveyer. The basic laws predicted by simulation methods on curves of depth-dose distribution of electrons near the boundary of contacting materials with different densities and/or atomic numbers were experimentally confirmed. The physical models for explanation of observed boundaries effects are considered in the report.

    2005 y.

    1. I. Kaluska, V. T.Lazurik, V. M. Lazurik, G. F. Popov, Y. V.Rogov, Z. Zimek.
      Dose Distribution in Multi-Layer Targets Irradiated by Electron Beam.
      Proceed. of the ICAA05 Conference, S-Petersburg, Russia. 2005. P.57-60.
    2. Abstract. The features of the depth-dose distribution (DDD) in multi-layer targets near the boundary of contacting materials with different densities and/or atomic numbers as well as in dosimetric films located between the materials at an irradiation their with a scanned electron beam (EB) ) were predicted by computer simulation. Predicted dose extremes for the DDD were experimentally confirmed on the industrial radiation facility.

    3. V.Lazurik, G.Popov, J.Bukovjan, J.Dobrovodsky.
      Control System for Absorbed Dose Monitoring.
      Proceed. of the ICAA05 Conference, S-Petersburg, Russia. 2005. P.417-420.
    4. Abstract. The paper presents a description of the control system (CS) for typical industrial radiation facility based on the linac. In an offered CS the management of the electron beam (EB) processing in real-time mode is carried out by criteria and physical characteristics, which determine the process of a radiation effect in an irradiated product. Such characteristics are absorbed dose (AD) and AD uniformity.

    2006 - nowadays

    1. V.T. Lazurik, S.A. Pismenesky, G. F. Popov, D.V. Rudychev, V.G. Rudychev.
      An increase of utilization efficiency of X-ray beam.
      Abstract book. 13th International Meeting on Radiation Processing (IMRP), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2006, p. 108.
    2. Abstract. Formation of X-ray (bremsstrahlung) by a scanned electron beam with given law of deflection on time in a flat extent converter is considered with using simulation methods. The algorithm of computation supposes the management by the spatial-angular distributing of X-ray due to the change of electron beam incidence angle on a converter along scan direction. Thus an increasing of irradiation uniformity on object surface can be obtained and the losses near edges are decreased. Characteristics of an incident electrons distribution on a converter, generation of the X-ray spectral distributions in the converter, and the X-ray absorbed dose in an object were calculated with the use of GEANT and ModeXR codes. It is also shown, that the proposed method make it possible to improve an X-ray dose uniformity ratio in an irradiated object, that can increase of utilization efficiency of X-ray beam.

    3. I.Kaluska, V. T.Lazurik, V. M. Lazurik, G. F. Popov, Y. V.Rogov, Z. Zimek.
      The features of electron dose distributions in circular objects: Comparison of Monte Carlo simulation predictions with dosimetry.
      Abstract book. 13th International Meeting on Radiation Processing (IMRP), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2006, p. 206.
    4. Abstract. Electron accelerators are widely used for radiation treatment of multi-layer circular objects such as wire, cable, tubing, pipes, flexible hose, etc. The features of electron dose distribution formation in the objects are related with its surface irregularity such as convexity, concavity and roundness of inner and outer layers. The simulation of dose distributions into four-layer circular objects at one-, two-, four-sided, and rotational irradiation by a scanned electron beam (EB) on moving conveyer were performed by Monte Carlo method with utilization of the software ModeCEB, which was designed specially for predictions of the electron dose distribution into multi-layer circular materials. The effects of mutual influence on dose distributions formation near the boundary layers of the empty and filled tubes, which were placed side by side in parallel with a direction of the conveyor motion, were simulated and measured with a film dosimetry.

      The experimental validation of the obtained simulation predictions for dose distributions into multi-layer circular objects irradiated by a scanned electron beam with energy 10V was fulfilled on radiation technological line with linear electron accelerator LAE 13/9, INCT, Warsaw. Comparison of Monte Carlo simulation results with a film dosimetry is discussed in the report.

    5. I. Kaluska, V. T.Lazurik, V. M. Lazurik, G. F. Popov, Y. V.Rogov, Z. Zimek.
      The use computation methods for optimization of electron beam radiation sterilization process.
      Abstract book: XX International Workshop on Charged Particle Accelerators, Alushta, the Crimea, Ukraine. 2007.-P.166.
    6. More than 1200 electron accelerators are used world wide in different radiation technologies. EB radiation sterilization process becomes one of the continuously growing branches of radiation processing. The main task for radiation sterilization process is the choice of required parameters for EB radiation facility which provides an optimization of the process irradiation.

      Information system for decision of optimization tasks for EB radiation sterilization process was developed. The features of the system are detailed and precise consideration of a self-consistent physical and geometrical models of calculation an EB dose map in an irradiated target, a sterility assurance level (SAL) and a sterilizing dose. The system includes the specialized software ModePEB for modeling by Monte Carlo method of the EB absorbed dose within multilayer packages and ModeSAL for modeling and comparative analysis of a sterility assurance level and a sterilizing dose.

      Our investigations have shown that appearance of anomalies in an EB dose map near the interface of contacting materials with different density and/or atomic number can be essential influence on the SAL and sterilizing dose. The analysis of interrelations between parameters of EB radiation facility and values of SAL and sterilizing dose to optimize conditions of radiation sterilization process are considered in the report.

    Copyright © radtech.univer.kharkov.ua 2012-2013
    . .. ,